Financial Metrics and Alternative Performance Measures

Adjusted EBITDA
Operating profit/loss from continuing operations before depreciation/amortization and impairment, results from shares in joint ventures and aAssociated companies and items affecting comparability.

Adjusted EBITDA margin
Adjusted EBITDA as a percentage of revenue.

Capital expenditure (Capex)
Additions to intangible and tangible assets that are capitalized on the balance sheet.

Capex paid
Cash paid for the additions to intangible and tangible assets net of cash proceeds from sales of intangible and tangible assets.

Earnings per Share
Profit/loss for the period attributable to the parent company shareholders in relation to the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the fiscal year.

Operating profit/loss
Revenue less operating expenses.

Economic net debt
Net debt excluding liabilities to Kazakhtelecom, liability for earn-out obligation in Kazakhstan and loan guaranteed by Kazakhtelecom.

Economic net debt / Adjusted EBITDA
Economic net debt at the end of the period indicated divided by adjusted EDITDA rolling twelve months.

End-user service revenue
Revenue from end-user excluding equipment revenue. 

Equity free cash flow (EFCF)
Adjusted EBITDA less capex paid, interest on bank debt, coupons to bondholders, taxes and change in net working capital.

Equity per share
Equity divided by the total number of outstanding shares.

Items affecting comparability
Impairment losses and transactions from strategic decisions, such as capital gains and losses from sales of operations, acquisition costs, integration costs due to acquisition or merger, restructuring programs from reorganizations as well as other items with the character of not being part of normal daily operations and that affects comparability.

Net debt
Interest-bearing non-current and current liabilities excluding equipment financing, provisions, cash and cash equivalents, current investments, restricted cash and derivatives.

Net debt / Adjusted EBITDA
Net debt at the end of the period indicated divided by adjusted EBITDA rolling twelve months.

Operating cash flow (OCF)
Adjusted EBITDA less capex.

Organic growth
Calculated at constant currency, meaning that comparative figures have been recalculated using the Organicurrency rates for the current period, and excluding effects of divestments and acquisitions.

Organic growth has replaced "like-for-like" growth, which was used prior to Q4 2018.

Total shareholder return including change in the share price and cash dividends.

Industry Terms

Addressable footprint
Number of households connected to our FiberCoax and fiberLAN networks, third party open networks, and connected and/or passed by fiber in networks unbundled by the Group.

Derived from the word "analogous" which means "similar to" in phone transmission, the signal being transmitted (phone, video or image) is "analogous" to the original signal.

Average monthly spending per user for the referenced period. ASPU is calculated by dividing the monthly end-user service revenue for the period by the average number of unique customers or RGUs for the same period. The average number of unique customers/RGUs is calculated as the number of unique customers/RGUs on the first day in the period plus the number of unique customers/RGUs on the last day of the respective period, divided by two.

A backbone refers to the principal data routes between large, interconnected networks.

Bundling is a marketing strategy that involves offering several services for sale as one combined service.



Customer premises equipment such as a router or set top box.

The voluntary or involuntary discontinuance of customer agreements (for unique customers) or service agreements (for RGUs), expressed as an annualized percentage of the total number of unique customers or RGUs.

The use of a binary code to represent information in telecommunications recording and computing. Analog signals, such as phone or music, are encoded digitally by sampling the phone or music analog signals many times a second and assigning a number to each sample.

Digital subscriber line.

Digital terrestrial television.

Data Over Cable Interface Specification is an international standard that defines the communications and operation support interface requirements for a data over cable system. It permits the addition of high-speed data transfer to an existing cable television system.

FiberCoax network
FibreCoax is a technology used by the cable television industry to provide a variety of services, including analog television, digital television (both standard and high definition), VoD, telephony and highspeed data access using a combination of optical fibre and traditional coaxial cable.

Gigabyte (GB)
Measurement of data usage.

Gigabits per second. A unit of data transfer rate equal to 1,000,000,000 bits per second. The bandwidth of a broadband network is usually specified in gigabits per second.

High Definition.

Internet of Things.

Internet Protocol is a protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched network. It is used for transmitting data over the Internet and other similar networks. The data is broken down into data packets, each data packet is assigned an individual address, then the data packets are transmitted independently and finally reassembled at the destination.

IP Television (IPTV)
Internet Protocol Television is the transmission of television content using IP over a network infrastructure, such as a broadband Internet connection.

Integrated Services Digital Network is a set of communication standards for simultaneous digital transmission of voice, video, data, and other network services over the traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network.

Local area network based on Ethernet-based access technology.

Large enterprise
Enterprise with more than 99 employees.

Long Term Evolution is the project name of a new high performance air interface for cellular mobile communication systems.

Megabits per second. A unit of data transfer rate equal to 1,000,000 bits per second. The bandwidth of a broadband network is usually specified in megabits per second.

Mobile broadband

Multi-dwelling unit. Housing with multiple, separate housing units.

Mobile network operator.

Mobile M2M
Mobile machine-to-machine.

Mobile prepaid
Mobile subscription for which credit is purchased in advance of service use. The credit is valid until consumed and users can top up their credit at any time.

Mobile postpaid
A mobile subscription which is billed on a regular basis after services have been received, usually at the end of each month.

Mobile virtual network operator.

Net Promoter Score, a measure of customer satisfaction.

Open LAN
A LAN, which is most commonly managed by a communications operator and characterised by third-party ownership and by various service providers. The service providers offer their services directly to end customers.

Over-the-top video.

Public Switched Telephone Network.

Revenue generating units, which refer to each service subscribed to by a unique customer. A unique customer who has several services is counted as several RGUs but one unique customer.

Roam Like At Home. An EU regulation concerning roaming and net neutrality with the purpose of removing roaming fees within the EU.

Single dwelling unit, such as a free-standing or separate house.

Small and medium enterprises. Refers to companies with 10-99 employees.

Single office/Home office. Refers to companies with 1-9 employees.

Unique customer
The number of individual customer agreements to subscribe to one or more services (RGUs).

Vertical LAN
A LAN that is usually built and controlled by an individual operator with an exclusive right to provide its services to end-customers.

Video on Demand is the transmission of digital video data on demand, by either streaming data or allowing data to be downloaded over a broadband connection.

Voice over IP.

Virtual private network.

Wireless LAN.

Digital Subscriber Line is a generic name for a range of digital technologies relating to the transmission of Internet and data signals from the telecommunication service provider's central office to the end customer's premises over the standard copper wire used for voice services.